Allen, R. L. (2004). Whiteness and critical pedagogy. Educational Philosophy & Theory, 36(2), 121-136. doi:10.1111/j.1469-5812.2004.00056.x

This 2004 article intends to contribute to changing white identity and ending white supremacy by creating a new form of critical pedagogy that uses a race-radical perspective. The original critical pedagogy theory uses class as the basis of social and political life, while the new form of this theory uses race as the basis. The theory of oppressors that was developed by Freire was also integrated into the new form of critical pedagogy.

The bulk of the article contains information about Freire’s work and the author’s beliefs regarding white people and their oppression of people of color. The author states that people of color must be where knowledge, inspiration, and sacrifice for liberation from white racism and oppression come from. The article begins by providing a brief overview of critical pedagogy and its’ history. The article then discusses and critiques the work of Paulo Freire, and then provides characteristics of white oppressors. These characteristics include a fear of people of color, using divide and conquer strategies to weaken the resolve of the oppressed, believing themselves to be the oppressed group, and having little awareness of people of color. The article then discusses how oppressors can be transformed by accepting they are oppressors and racists, unlearning problematic white behavior and ideology, unlearning colorblindness and white superiority, and engaging in conversations with people of color regarding how to dismantle white supremacy.

This article is written for white people who want to transform themselves, or for others who seek information regarding race-centered critical pedagogy and information about how whites oppress other races. It is related to the topic of anti-racism because it discusses characteristics of racists, as well as how they can change.  

Although the article’s strength in the amount of detail presented about tactics and beliefs of oppressors, it is also its’ weakness. The most notable weakness or bias in the article is its’ inclusion of broad overgeneralizations about white individuals. For example, the author states that whites are nearly unable to trust the leadership of people of color, have chosen to fear people of color, have a neurotic mentality, and do not have love for the oppressed, which makes them less human.  While this is true of some white people, these generalizations make the article appear very biased and unscholarly. Another weakness is that the article does not convey a clear and succinct sense of how oppressors can be transformed; much of the recommendations are lost within the author’s lengthy discourse on the characteristics and failings of white people.

Boutte, G. S., & Jackson, T. O. (2014). Advice to white allies: insights from faculty of color. Race, Ethnicity & Education, 17(5), 623-642. doi:10.1080/13613324.2012.759926

This article is intended to present discussions of both successes within and tensions regarding social justice efforts in teacher education. It is also intended to give advice regarding how white allied within education can focus on how to ensure the wellbeing of their culturally and linguistically diverse students. The article is also intended to provide suggestions on how white allies in education (at both the K-12 and higher education settings) can support faculty of color through anti-racism work.

The article first discusses some of the frustrations that occur when white allies are not consistent in their support of faculty of color. Then an overview of their framework is discussed which includes aspects of Freire’s work and critical race theory. The authors then share their counterstories regarding their experiences with, commitment to, and biases regarding social justice agendas. The article concludes with nine suggestions on how white allies can better support faculty of color, including becoming familiar with academic literature on racism, being willing to unlearn their own racism, letting go of positions of privilege, and understanding how racism is within practices and policies, as well as being normalized in universities.

This article is written for individuals who wish to become white allies, those interested in learning how to better support faculty of color, and those interested in learning how to change their perspective to focusing on culturally and linguistically diverse students. This article has relevance to critical race theory, anti-racism and faculty culture. It discusses how to become a white ally in order to change current racist faculty culture, as well as how to engage in anti-racism work within the framework of critical race theory in order to create a focus on social justice.

This article presents very well researched and well thought-out recommendations for whites who wish to engage in anti-racism work at their school or higher education institution. The article also provides detailed information about their framework and personal connections to social justice. I found that the article was deeply enriched by the use of counterstories, as well as the large amount of research presented that coincided with each of their recommendations.

Cooper, J. E., Massey, D., & Graham, A. (2006). Being “dixie” at a historically black university: A white faculty member’s exploration of whiteness through the narratives of two black faculty members. Negro Educational Review, 57(1/2), 117-135.

This article is intended to depict the effects of counterstories and CRT on a white faculty member’s understanding of self and pedagogy within a HBCU, as well as to discuss race, culture, and teaching within the scope of three different perspectives. Finally, this article is intended to provide information on the history, formation, and purposes of HBCUs, white professors who work at HBCUs, CRT, and culturally relevant pedagogy.

The author desired a better understanding of the sociocultural mores of a historically Black college or college (HBCU), as well as how to best teach her students, so she began meeting with two black faculty members (one male and one female) every other week. These meetings included an update from the author on her experiences with teaching and other faculty, as well as stories shared by the other faculty members (an aspect of CRT). These meetings helped the author understand her experiences of whiteness and privilege, how to interpret interactions with students and peers, and understand the academic and social culture of the campus. The article then provides a literature review of articles and books read by the author in order to better understand the history, formation, and purposes of HBCUs, white professors who work at HBCUs, CRT, and culturally relevant pedagogy. The author intended to answer three questions: What is in a name, how could she teach a culture she does not know, and how could she effectively teach black students. The other members of her group answered these questions through counterstories, followed by the author’s response. The article concludes with how the counterstories changed the author’s teaching, namely by teaching her to ask questions, to risk sharing her own story, and to create an environment where it is safe for people to share their stories.

This article is intended for those interested in the application of CRT to a white person’s pedagogy and self-knowledge, faculty culture within HBCU’s, and the effectiveness of counterstories. This article is also intended for faculty members who work at a HBCU. This article provides information about CRT, as well as information about its’ application to pedagogy and how it effects someone’s understanding of their whiteness. This article is well-written, organized well, and includes a depth of information that is exceptional. The detailed counterstories included in the article makes a compelling case for the effectiveness of this aspect of CRT. However, the article does not include recommendations for further research. The literature review section of the article does an excellent job of providing information about the history, formation, and purposes of HBCUs, white professors who work at HBCUs, CRT, and culturally relevant pedagogy.

Critical race theory and white racism: Is there room for white scholars in fighting racism in education?. (2003). International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education (QSE), 16(1), 51.

This 2003 article intends to provide a summary of critical race theory (CRT) and its’ arguments, the issues white researchers may face when attempting to integrate CRT into their work, and how it can be best used by white individuals.  Three of the main aspects of CRT include centering race, being skeptical of approaches to racism, including colorblindness, racism, and merit, and having an emphasis on the experiences, voices, and counterstories of people of color. The author contends that CRT can be of assistance to white researchers who want to fight racism at both the individual and structural levels in three ways. First, CRT highlights the importance of centering race in both personal and work-related aspects of life; for white individuals, this means being aware of and rejecting white privilege. Second, although whites cannot use CRT to understand experiences of people of color, they can gain an understanding that it was developed by people of color to explain their experiences and effect social change. Third, CRT can be used along with other alternative methods that are the results of lived experiences to legitimize research. Although whites cannot truly engage in CRT, they can use the theory. This article is written for white researchers and whites involved in education.

This article has great relevance to anti-racism, faculty culture, and the field of critical race studies for several reasons. First, the article addresses how to use CRT in order to engage in anti-racism work in an educational (including faculty) culture. The article also provides recommendations for how white people can use the theory in an appropriate manner to aid in anti-racism. Because the article summarizes CRT, it clearly connects to CRT. This article is also notable because it provides insight into the importance of white individuals utilizing this theory in a respectful and thoughtful manner. It also provides useful information for laymen who are new to the theory.

This article provides an expansive introduction to CRT that makes the theory easy to understand, even for individuals new to the topic area. Furthermore, the article shows deep reflection on how white individuals can best use this theory without using it to further white privilege and advancement. The article also provides background information on the three main aspects of CRT, backing each up with current research. However, this article did not touch on any of the drawbacks or issues with this theory, making the article seem subjective rather than scholarly and objective. Although the article is clearly intending for a white audience, I believe the article could be improved by including information on how people of color could best use CRT in their personal and professional lives.

Denevi, E., & Pastan, N. (2006). Helping whites develop anti-racist identities: Overcoming their resistance to fighting racism. Multicultural Education, 14(2), 70-73.

This qualitative article seeks to determine what white privilege is, and what is the cost of racism to whites by providing information about the development of white anti-racist education groups for students and educational staff.

The article first provides a definition of white privilege and then presents examples of why white teachers and students are not making progress in understanding their own privilege and racism. The article then provides information about a discussion of white privilege that took place under Tim Wise’s direction. The discussion resulted in the participants (white and people of color) being able to move past their personal understanding of race and racism. The author shares the events that resulted in the development of the Association for White Anti-Racist Education (AWARE) group which was intended to help white students and educational staff become actively anti-racist. The author cautions that white privilege and oppression will continue in American until whites perceive the work they do in developing their own anti-racist identities and they work they do to help other whites develop anti-racist identities as a success. AWARE effectively handles roadblocks regarding white privilege understanding and development of anti-racist racial identities by showing other when they have need for a deeper understanding of the subject and by focusing on developing a positive anti-racist group identity. The article concluded with recommendations on how to create AWARE groups.

This article is written for the education community, particularly those interested in helping whites develop anti-racist identities or developing anti-racist education groups. This article discusses how to best create anti-racism and awareness of white privilege in white students, staff, and even faculty, making it an important read for those interested in anti-racism. The steps outlined in this article could easily be adapted for white faculty. This article does an excellent job of explaining the history and methodology of creating AWARE groups. Although this article provides valuable insights into how to help whites develop anti-racist identities, it does not utilize much research.

Diggles, K. (2014). Addressing racial awareness and color-blindness in higher education. New Directions for Teaching & Learning, 2014(140), 31-44. doi:10.1002/tl.20111

This chapter is intended to provide recommendations on how to change higher education programs into ones that have a focus on antiracism by using critical race theory (CRT).

The chapter begins with a brief summary of why race and racism are still current issues.  It then discusses racial awareness and color blindness before a discussion of the negative effects of color blindness.  Information regarding the factors that influence racial awareness are discussed and include race, personal experiences with racism and racial awareness, and education. A very brief summary of CRT is provided. The chapter concludes with several suggestions for implementation of CRT and antiracism into higher education programs, as well as the most notable obstacles that can be encountered when taking an antiracist approach, which includes providing effective experiences within the classroom, overcoming student resistance, and ensuring that teachers are prepared and able to teach CRT content effectively.

This chapter is written for higher education professionals (staff, faculty, and administrators) who wish to integrate antiracism and critical race theory into their programs. This article discusses antiracism and CRT in a higher education classroom setting, making it relevant to both topics. The primary weakness of the chapter is due to the lack of information it provides regarding CRT. Instead of discussing CRT, the chapter focuses on how to integrate it into programs and what obstacles can occur when using CRT in higher education. The primary strength of the chapter is the detail and amount of research used within the noted barriers to taking an antiracist approach in the classroom.

Giroux, H. A. (1997). Rewriting the discourse of racial identity: Towards a pedagogy and politics of Whiteness. Harvard Educational Review67(2), 285.

This article is intended to provide a history of Whiteness, how racial identity is being used by various groups, and what current limitations exist regarding current research and understanding of Whiteness. The article is also intended to provide information on how the use of two movies could help students better understand the representation of race in the American media. Furthermore, the article suggests that using the movies could help white students connect their Whiteness with a new understanding and new language of ethnicity.

The article begins with a brief history of Whiteness during the 1980s and 1990s and then highlights that once whiteness began being examined by other social and racial groups, there was a focus on alleviating white anxiety and undermining attempts at true social justice. Information about the history of Whiteness studies is provided, including the work of bell hooks, David Roediger, Thomas Nakayama, and Robert Krizek. The author develops a critique of the idea that Whiteness is the same as domination and that the only way for progressive young Whites to develop a racial identity is by rejecting their whiteness. Two forces that make Whiteness more visible as a creator of privilege and power and limit opportunities for white youth to be both oppositional and still white are the emergence of identity politics from the 1960s to the present and the changes that have taken place regarding the visibility of blacks in the American media. The article then provides a summary of studies by Gallagher and Hall regarding whiteness and “new” ethnicity. Information about how whiteness is represented in the American media is presented. The article contains a detailed analysis of both movies. The author discusses the pedagogical implications of having students examine how whiteness is portrayed in two movies titled “Dangerous Minds” and “Suture.” The author contends that watching and discussing the movies can give pedagogical understanding into how Whiteness is learned through representations of radicalized identities, and how students can understand the relationships between Whiteness and racism without denying their Whiteness. The author contends that Whiteness is more than just a position of domination and privilege and that white students need to understand their Whiteness. The article concludes with the author’s concerns regarding the lack of attempts to create a pedagogy that allows White students to move past feelings of guilt or resentment, and concerns about the repercussions in education that occur when instructors who use an anti-racist pedagogy that suggests “Whiteness can only be understood in terms of the common experience of White domination and racism” (Giroux, 1997, p. 314).  The author states that educators need to focus on connecting Whiteness with a new understanding and new language of ethnicity.

This article is written for educators who are interested in helping their students better understand their ethnicity and how it is portrayed in the media, as well as for those interested in the effects of an anti-racist pedagogy in the classroom that allows white students to move past feelings of guilt or resentment. Finally, this article is also intended for those interested in the field of critical white studies or anti-racist pedagogies. This article does an excellent job of providing information about the history of whiteness and how the two films could be used within an anti-racism pedagogy. However, the article spends too much time discussing the plots of both movies, and not enough time providing recommendations for further research, action, and even pedagogical approached.

Henry, F., & Tator, C. (2012). Interviews with racialized faculty members in Canadian universities. Canadian Ethnic Studies44(2), 75-99.

This article is intended to share common themes that resulted from interviews with 89 radicalized Canadian higher education faculty who work at 12 different institutions regarding their status, representation and position, and experiences with racism.  

The article first provides a discussion of their participants within and the study’s methodology before presenting information about everyday racism. It then begins a lengthy and in-depth report of common themes found during interviews with the study participants. Information on the loneliness and alienation experienced by radicalized faculty at Canadian higher education institutions is discussed, as well as the Eurocentric curriculum found in higher education,  underrepresentation in many departments, and tenure and the promotion process. Other themes found in the interviews include a lack of value regarding research that had a critical orientation or community research of an applied nature, tokenism, and criticism of administrative management and departmental management. The article concludes with its’ findings, including the common belief of radicalized faculty that the university is a traditional white and male-dominated institution that only takes minimal steps toward providing an inclusive welcoming environment for its racialized and Indigenous faculty, the need for a significant shift in values and norms in higher education, removal of systemic barriers, and a legitimization of various types of knowledge. The article concludes by stating that “The university is understood as being slow to make changes to benefit racialized and Indigenous faculty, and when it does take action, the changes are seen to be merely lip service to the ideas of equality, equity and anti-racism (Henry & Tator, 2012, p. 98).

This article is written for those interested in the experiences of radicalized faculty, as well as their recommendations for changes in racism and faculty culture within Canadian universities. This article is related to anti-racism and faculty culture. The article provides numerous details regarding the experiences of radicalized faculty and the culture of their institution, as well as their experiences with racism and anti-racism. The article provides extensive information about themes that emerged during interviews with Canadian faculty, but barely provides any sort of literature review prior to displaying the findings. This article could be improved by adding background information about racism theories or the history of racism within Canadian higher education. However, the depth of detail provided in the article’s recommendations and findings make this article an important and valuable read for those interested in radicalized faculty, anti-racism, and racism in higher education.

Keating, A. (1995). Interrogating `whiteness,’ (de)constructing `race’. College English57(8), 901-918.

This article intends to summarize theorists’ explorations of “whiteness”, provide a discussion of the difficulties that can happen when these analyses are incorporated into classroom lectures and discussion, give suggestions for other approaches that investigate whiteness while also deconstructing race.

The article begins with a section on exploring whiteness as well as the dangers in recent interrogations of “whiteness” and other racialized identities. The article then provides information on several theories regarding exploring whiteness, including work by Dyer, Morrison, and Nielsen.  The author then discusses difficulties that can arise when whiteness is analyzed or explored in the classroom, including: separating whiteness from other forms of privilege, analyzing literature based on race, and the demonization of whiteness that often occurs, and the common assumptions of students  that “race” is a permanent characteristic of American life. Information regarding the history of some racial groups that have been redefined in the past is given. Much information is given regarding the definitions of whiteness and blackness, and how they have changed over time. The article concludes with the four main problems that occur when whiteness and other racial categories are discussed without providing history about the terms and the relational nature between radicalized identities.

This work is written for educators who are interested in discussing whiteness, racism, and race in their classroom, or for those interested in radicalized identities, studies on whiteness, racism, and race.

This article provides excellent information about whiteness and how it can be discussed in the classroom. It also provides information about the history of definitions of races, as well as background information on previous theories regarding whiteness.

Although well-written, this article does not include any headings of different sections, which makes navigating the article somewhat difficult as transitions between sections are not always clear. Furthermore, a large section of the article is spent describing different individuals’ theories regarding exploring whiteness; it appears that quantity of theories was prized over quality, as not much depth is given to the work of several theorists. Also, no recommendations are made regarding next steps in this topic area or for further research.

Kolchin, P. (2002). Whiteness studies: The new history of race in America. Journal of American History89(1), 154-173.

This article is intended to provide a literature review on the subject of whiteness studies. The article begins with a summary of two primary books on whiteness studies, namely Roediger’s “The Wages of Whiteness” and Jacobson’s “Whiteness of a Different Color.” Other literature is reviewed, including work by Fields and Newman. The author discusses some of the more notable features of whiteness studies, including their subjective nature, a didactic tone, and blending of historical analysis with policy proposals. The author argues that the reason for the increase in research on white power, privilege, and identity is because of the discouragement felt by many because of the persistence of racism. The article ends with several conclusions regarding the body of work on whiteness, including that it is helping to refine our understanding of race and how race is constructed, helping to remind people that race includes whites and nonwhites, and has served to highlight the oppressiveness of race as a method of categorizing people. The author states that whiteness studies should include more historiographical context, and whiteness studies have a great deal of unfulfilled potential. The author states his hopes that future research on whiteness will include more attention to the context of history and geography, better definitions of the many meanings of whiteness, more research on the relationships between nation and race, and more information on how nonwhites and whites in the making perceive whiteness and non-whiteness.

This article is written for those interested in research findings on whiteness, as well as for those who wish to continue to conduct research on this topic. The author does an excellent job of providing information on current and past research on whiteness, as well as providing recommendations for further research in this area. The article has a lack of headings, which makes it somewhat difficult to navigate the article.

Ladson-Billings, G. (1998). Just what is critical race theory and what’s it doing in a nice field like education?. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 11(1), 7-30.

The purpose of this chapter is to give a summary of critical race theory (CRT) and its’ themes. It is also intended to provide critical race theory’s importance regarding understanding of citizenship and its’ relationship to education and race. Finally, the chapter intends to provide implications for further research on CRT.

The article provides a brief history of the origins of CRT. It then discussed the main themes in CRT, including a belief that racism is the norm in American society, the use of stories to better understand the common culture of race, the critique of liberalism, and the argument that the prime beneficiaries of civil rights legislation are whites. The reasons for CRT’s use of stories, or “naming your reality” are discussed. The article examines the connection between critical race scholarship and educational issues within the scope of property issues. Because citizenship in early America was tied to owning property, the idea emerged that being white is valuable and is a form of property which other races can never possess. This “property” gives whites advantages and a sort of citizenship which others cannot have, even within the field of education. The relevance of CRT in education is discussed, especially in regards to curriculum, instruction, assessment, school funding, and desegregation. The author cautions against integration of CRT into education until the theory has been further studied, as well as the legal literature it is related to.

This article is intended for people who are unfamiliar with CRT. This article is an excellent one for those new to the topic to read because it provides a clear overview of a potentially complicated theory and its effects on education. This article is also intended for those working within the field of education.

Although it does not discuss faculty culture in depth, the article does briefly discuss educational culture. It also provides an excellent overview of CRT and its’ relationship to education. It recommends taking a stance against racism and further research regarding CRT.

This qualitative article is very well-written, excellently researched, and easy for laymen to understand. The author’s suppositions regarding CRT, citizenship, and education are all backed up with research. However, the author provides only a few recommendations for further research on the topic and actual practice of the theory.

Matias, C. E., & Liou, D. D. (2015). Tending to the heart of communities of color: Towards critical race teacher activism. Urban Education, 50(5), 601-625.

The purpose of this article is to present a counter-story of how a teacher engaged in critical race teacher activism in order to depict what critical race activism looks like in the classroom setting and to share the struggles she faced. The article is also intended to use critical race theory (CRT) and critical whiteness studies (CWS) to further determine how critical race activism can be applied to the urban classroom setting.  

The article begins by discussing urban education and the influence of race on it. Information about a community of color epistemology is presented, and includes details regarding white ally teachers, white privilege, and how race, racism, and whiteness in urban education results in colorblindness. CRT and CWS are used to determine how critical race teacher activism is conceptualized. Then a counter-story from one of the authors is provided, which reflects on her past experiences within an urban classroom and which of her actions led to determining components of critical race activism in teaching. These actions include not using a Eurocentric curriculum, helping students learn to rethink how they think about race, and frontloading critical race vocabulary. The teaching experiences of the author are then analyzed with a focus on the emotional components of critical race activism, which include strength, political solidarity, ethics of care, and emotionality. The article concludes with recommendations for further research on critical race activism, and discussion of the need for using an explicit racial justice framework within teacher education programs.

This article is intended for teachers of color who are interested in using critical race activism in their teaching approach, as well as others who are interested in the application of CWS and CRT in education.

The article is relevant to CWS and CRT by using the theories in applications to critical race activism in education, and also chronicles anti-racism efforts in education. This article does an excellent job of balancing personal experiences with current research, as well as analyzing personal experiences through the lens of CRT and critical race activism. The article could be improved by the addition of further recommendations for research and recommendations for best practices using critical race activism.

Michael, A., & Conger, M. C. (2009). Becoming an anti-racist white ally: How a white affinity group can help. Perspectives on Urban Education, 56-60.

This purpose of this article is to describe an affinity group called White Students Confronting Racism (WSCR) for whites who are passionate about ending racism, as well as to help the reader better understand affinity groups and their benefits for white educators.

The article begins with discussing the purpose of WSCR, which is to help white students better understand their white identities, as well as to help them become anti-racist allies who are effective. A brief overview of affinity groups is provided, as well as the history, dynamics, topics of discussion, and norms within WSCR. Narratives from members of WSCR are also provided regarding their initial reactions to WSCR and their reflections on the growth they have experienced as a result of the group. The article then discusses the benefits of a white affinity group, which are: being a resource for those who want further knowledge about race and a way in which to process their thoughts and feelings about race, helping whites become anti-racist while still being “white,” helping educators and researchers in the realm of multicultural settings, and being a symbol of those who want to end racism and collaborate on the issue. The article then discusses those who are white allies committed to racial justice, and then concludes with recommendations regarding the importance of white educators understanding their privilege and engaging in anti-racism work.

This article is written for those interested in learning how to best become an anti-racist white ally, or those interested in the details of a productive affinity group for white educators. This article is related to CRT, faculty culture, and anti-racism for three reasons. This article describes how faculty can take part in affinity groups, as well as the effects of these groups. It also is related to CRT because it discusses the importance of centering race and recognizing privilege. Finally, it describes the anti-racism efforts of an affinity group.

This article provides an excellent amount of detail regarding the norms, practices, and history of an affinity group. Furthermore, its’ attention to discussing the benefits of these groups for white educators is also exemplary. However, even though this is a qualitative article, there is an alarmingly small amount of research utilized.

Patton, L.D., & Bondi, S. (2015) Nice white men or social justice allies?: Using critical race theory to examine how white male faculty and administrators engage in ally work.  Race Ethnicity and Education, 18(4), 488-514. doi: 10.1080/13613324.2014.1000289

This article is intended to review the challenges that social justice allies encounter when working in higher education. The article provides information on a qualitative study of 12 white men in higher education who were engaged in ally work at their institution.

The article begins by highlighting the three privileges that white anti-racist educators possess, and then provides extensive research regarding allies and ally work. The conceptual framework of critical race theory is covered in detail. Information regarding the study discussed in the article is provided and includes the qualitative study of 12 white men who were asked to define the term “ally,” whether they believe themselves to be allies, and what ally work they had previously engaged in. Three themes emerged from the interviews, namely that faculty members challenged the status quo in their classrooms, participants reflected on the risks and sacrifices of ally work, and participants aspired to be allies. The article then covers the implications of the study which includes the tendency toward anti-racist ally work at the individual (rather than institutional) level, why individual ally work is attractive, the focus on helping, and a discussion of what constitutes ally work. The article then concludes with recommendations for further research, including focusing on expanding conversations about white privilege, white men’s involvement in ally work, and the processes white men use to implicate themselves within systems of oppression.

This article is written for those interested in the practices of white faculty members who are engaged in anti-racist ally work at their institution, as well as how these practices can be viewed through a CRT framework. This article could be of use to individuals researching CRT, white privilege, and white ally work in higher education.

This article is relevant to CRT, anti-racism, and faculty culture. This article uses CRT to interpret how white men (faculty and administrators) become allies and engage in ally work in education. This article also discusses CRT and anti-racism efforts of faculty.  

This article contains an immense amount of past research and does an excellent job of providing details, especially in its’ information on CRT, findings from the study, and the implications of the study.

Smith, L., & Redington, R. M. (2010). Lessons from the experiences of white antiracist activists. Professional Psychology: Research & Practice, 41(6), 541-549. doi: 10.1037/a0021793

This study sought to determine the perspectives, interpersonal experiences, and developmental paths of white antiracist activists, and to clarify how they felt about the meaning and components of activism within their lives. This information was gathered in for the use of psychologists in order to improve the effectiveness of their interventions with diverse client populations.

This qualitative article begins with a brief synopsis of how multicultural and social justice principles can create a framework that can improve the effectiveness of psychologists’ interventions with their patients. The article then provides information on race, whiteness, and applied psychology. The study consisted of interviews with 18 nominated antiracist white activists. The findings from the interviews are discussed and include 11 domains and themes within each domain. Main themes include participants having a clear stance toward race, seeing action as an imperative, having integrity and peace of mind, and experiences of interpersonal conflicts due to their antiracist stances. The study then provides six implications for training psychologists, which could also be modified to use for faculty in higher education. The article concludes with a brief discussion of the study’s limitations and recommendations for further research, including research on the antiracist development among people without college degrees.

Although this article is intended for psychologists who wish to learn more about the experiences of white antiracist activists, the recommendations and experiences of these activists can also be applied to those working in higher education. The antiracist activists have a wealth of knowledge and experiences that can be used within faculty culture, or further reviewed using critical race theory.

The study is somewhat limited because all the participants had at least a bachelor’s degree and most had a masters degree, making it difficult to determine if higher education has an influence on antiracism beliefs and practices.

Teel, K. (2014). Getting out of the left lane: The possibility of white antiracist pedagogy. Teaching Theology & Religion, 17(1), 3-26. doi:10.1111/teth.12156

This article is intended to prove that using educational theory to evaluate antiracist pedagogical strategies can make white faculty members more strategic, systematic, and effective. It also intends to prove that a knowledge of research regarding antiracism, social justice, and multicultural education can make instructors more effective by analyzing the effectiveness of the author’s pedagogy strategies through the research of others.

The article begins with the author’s reasoning for the importance of using antiracist pedagogy. The author then provides a summary of their institution’s culture and student body. Then, the author describes the five antiracist theological pedagogy strategies that she uses. These strategies are diversifying the syllabus, using listening and discussing exercises, the use of self-description by the faculty member in order to encourage students to develop their own self-understanding that is related to power and privilege issues, using data and statistics from research on racism, and the use of a “freeway metaphor.” The article then critiques and analyzes the strategies by using the work of Banks (1996), Sleeter and Grant (2009),  Applebaum (2010), and Thompson (2003) regarding multicultural education. The article discusses five of the principles from Thompson’s work regarding how to avoid obstacles encountered when teaching about social justice, namely staying mindful of context, performing instead of preaching, leaving outcomes open, being honest about avoiding derailment, and remembering your own limitations. The author briefly describes how she is using these principles in her teaching practice. The article concludes with the author’s conclusions that her previous teaching approach to antiracist pedagogy was ineffective and is being changed.

This article is written for primarily white higher education faculty who are interested in bettering their teaching practices and pedagogy regarding antiracism and social justice. The article is also intended for those interested in past multicultural education and social justice pedagogy and their effectiveness.

This article discusses the importance of using antiracist pedagogy, as well as the importance of social justice pedagogy for white higher education faculty. While faculty culture is discussed briefly, the article presents important research about antiracism in higher education and how racial justice can best be taught.

This article presents a compelling selection of research regarding teaching, antiracism efforts of white faculty, and social justice pedagogy. The author’s analysis of her teaching approach by using other researchers’ findings is helpful to faculty who want to improve their teaching. The author also presents research on why professors should use antiracist pedagogy in their classroom.